According to some researches, 32% of global disease burden could decrease by eliminating malnutrition but due to some infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS this is a challenging task. As malnutrition not only caused by poverty but it is also a primary cause of immunodeficiency which affects mostly children, adolescents and elders. Compromised immunity leaves a person vulnerable to infections. Pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, and AIDS cause almost half of the deaths in children age less than five years.
THE MACRONUTRIENT ERA AND CYCLE OF INFECTION:
This was the period when it was realized that taking the healthy diet with enough calories would meet the nutrition meets of the body. In 1968, WHO publish “interactions of nutrition and infection” suggesting it as synergistic relation.
Malnutrition can leave person susceptible to infecti0ons (makes unhealthy conditions) and in return infections causes further malnutrition and damage to defense mechanism.
Parasitic infections enormously effects world widely especially children with various intestinal parasites which causes malnutrition, nutrient loss, anemia and cognitive deficits. Children with no parasitic host body show good health status and free from other infections.
As we know that breast milk enhances immune system of infants by transferring antibodies and lymphocytes so malnutrition in pregnancy cause poor immune response to infections (in mother’s body) is partially made up for breast feeding.
HIV/AIDS – INFECTIOUS DISEASES:
The infectious and contagious diseases like HIV/AIDS develops malnutrition and is multifactorial disorder of food intake, nutrient absorption and intermediary metabolism. This causes whole challenging task to asses and provide nutritional support to HIV/AIDS patients individually for which standards and algorithms are provided.
There are more researches and studies going on to further improve this cycle of malnutrition and infections and to reduce the burden causing by these.